NCIS actress Pauley Perrette alleges that her ex-husband, Francis “Coyote” Shivers, abused her during their 4-year marriage and has conducted a stalking and harassment campaign against her in the 8 years during and since their divorce. Shivers is currently awaiting sentencing due to a dubious protective order violation that seems like a deliberate set-up orchestrated by Perrette and her current boyfriend.
According to various reports, Shivers and Perrette met in 1998, shortly after she was released from a voluntary hospitalization in the Cedars-Sinai psychiatric unit. Sources claim Perrette had a meltdown and voluntarily admitted herself for approximately 3-4 weeks. Unconfirmed reports indicate that she may have been given the diagnoses of bipolar disorder, borderline personality disorder and severe depression during her stay. The couple married two years later in 2000.
While together, Perrette claims that Shivers’ first ex-wife, Bebe Buell (more on her shortly), stalked the couple and filed restraining orders against her. Perrette’s former roommate and best friend (so close the two women have matching tattoos), Lisa Lynch, states in her court declaration that Perrette was the driving force behind the restraining orders against Buell and that Shivers was “reluctant” to file. Currently, Buell and Perrette seem to have joined forces in harassing and vilifying Shivers.
Shivers filed for divorce from Perrette shortly after discovering she was allegedly having an affair with a “pizza delivery boy” in July 2004. Reports indicate Perrette initially tried to woo him back and was panic stricken at the possibility of her affair being made public. A former mutual friend, Blair Barnette substantiates this claim in her declaration.
Perrette filed her first TRO against Shivers exactly one week after he filed for divorce in December 2004. Her stalking and harassment behaviors seem to have escalated over the last 8 years, particularly once Shivers began dating after their separation, and continues to this day.
Shivers has since remarried and has numerous declarations from close friends and other associates depicting Perrette as the vindictive, obsessive and dishonest party in this scenario. According to these declarations, Perrette allegedly has a history of seeking restraining orders against former exes. Perrette’s former BFF and tattoo twin, Lynch, states:
I have been present when Ms. Perrette broke up with lovers in her past, and I can say she has a history of vindictive actions toward them, when none was warranted. In particular, I recall her stealing the cat of her ex-boyfriend Daniel Rivas, and then when he wanted to take her to court about this, Ms. Perrette filled out the paperwork for a restraining order in retaliation.
The unlikely alliance between Perrette and Buell is strangely suspect and seems to be a case of “the enemy of my enemy is my friend.” Even more suspect is the outline for a screenplay titled Star Crazy that Pauley admitted to writing in 2002 at the most recent court hearing. Star Crazy pre-dates Perrette’s allegations against Shivers by approximately two years. The outline is essentially a how-to destroy an ex with false allegations DIY and appears to foreshadow what has transpired in the Perrette-Shivers case.
Star Crazy plot points:
- An actress of “sinister” character meets a man.
- Sinister actress stalks man.
- Sinister actress “schmoozes” and manipulates police into believing her tales of abuse.
- Sinister actress lends her celebrity to a charity to gain good will.
- Sinister actress tells more lies and falsely obtains a restraining order against the man, when (wink, wink) the actress is in reality the predator and the unwitting man is her prey.
- Sinister actress destroys the man’s life via the police, courts and public opinion and becomes a media darling.
It would seem Star Crazy is an example of life imitating bad art under Perrette’s direction.
By all accounts, the only thing Shivers appears guilty of is a history of incredibly bad taste in women and consistently poor judgment, neither of which is a crime. The Hon. Judge Gretchen Taylor who presided over the Perrette-Shivers divorce proceedings said as much in 2005.
Speaking of bad taste in women, Mr. Shivers’ first marriage was to Beverle “Bebe” Buell. Buell is a former 1970s Playboy Playmate/groupie/rock star communal party favor who became pregnant with daughter, actress Liv Tyler, after a fling with Aerosmith front man, Steven Tyler while in a “non-exclusive” live-in relationship with another 70s rocker, Todd Rundgren.
Buell lied about Liv’s paternity for nearly a decade, passing her off as Rundgren’s child. She kept it secret until Liv met her biological father when she was 8-years old, noticed the strong physical resemblance and asked her mother if Tyler was her father.
Buell later said she committed paternity fraud to “protect” baby Liv from Steven’s drug use, which is a flimsy excuse at best. Most women who commit paternity fraud do so to protect their own selfish interests and not the child’s best interests. Lying about a child’s paternity is in no one’s best interests except the mother’s.
Shivers married Buell in 1992 and filed for divorce in 1998 (finalized in 1999). According to Shivers, he divorced Buell because he repeatedly found her aggressively pursuing rock stars against their wishes and alleges that Buell has a long notorious history of stalking rock stars.
Why are Buell’s paternity fraud and serial stalker behaviors relevant? They show Buell to be a practiced and opportunistic liar who plays fast and loose with the truth when it serves her agenda. The article written by Roger Friedman (Buell’s close friend) dissected here indicates that when Buell heard about the marriage disintegrating in July 2004, she emailed Perrette (in violation of the RO against her) and offered to “help” Perrette in the divorce. Seems like a case of the Borderline leading the Borderline, although, if Shivers’ and his advocates’ claims about Perrette are true, it’s doubtful she needed stalking and restraining order advice from Buell.
Buell is the only ex of Shivers who has corroborated Perrette’s accounts – well, Buell and a former girlfriend, Angela Garber, who seems to have corroborated Perrette’s claims only while she was employed as Perrette’s assistant. Allegedly, the woman withdrew her restraining order petition after she left Perrette’s employ.
While reading through the various court documents and accounts, there appears to be a pattern of poor judgment and tactical errors by Shivers. In April 2012, Shivers tweeted that he and his current wife would be having dinner at their favorite restaurant, Shintaro.
It seems self-evident that you don’t advertise your whereabouts or itinerary on social media accounts if you are actively being stalked by an obsessive, vindictive ex (or stalked by any whackaloon for that matter) – especially if you don’t have a restraining order against your stalker. Even if you do have a restraining order, you still shouldn’t advertise your whereabouts. It’s mystifying that Shivers did not have a reciprocal restraining order. This seems like a real blunder by Shivers and by his legal representatives.
Predictably, when the Shivers arrived at Shintaro, Pauley was already there, waiting, perched and poised to call the cops and TMZ to report Shivers’ “violation” of the restraining order. A restraining order that had been in place for 5 years without incident, had recently expired and been reinstated at an ex parte motion filed by Perrette’s attorney shortly before the Shintaro incident. The whole debacle seems like an obvious and ham-fisted set-up by Perrette.
Did Perrette make false allegations against Shivers and harass, stalk and set him up? Let’s see if the court declarations and other evidence we have about Perrette and the case fit the characteristics of false accusers, false allegations and the falsely accused.
Defining Key Terms
Here are some of the psychological drivers and concepts that underlie the behaviors of false accusers and possibly Perrette’s behaviors and claims.
High-Conflict People (HCP): “High Conflict People have high-conflict personalities. Conflict is part of who they are. It’s a lifelong pattern of thinking and feeling and acting. Time after time, they argue against feedback, regardless of how helpful or truthful it may be. And time after time, they try to persuade others to agree with their rigid points of view and to help them attack their Targets of Blame. The issues come and go, but their personality traits keep them in conflict. Their problems remain unresolved and the stress on those around them often increases” (Eddy, 2008, p. 16).
HCPs are triggered by 4 fears:
- The fear of abandonment.
- The fear of feeling inferior.
- The fear of loss of resources (e.g., attention, status, money, power, control, career, etc.)
- The fear of public exposure of their misdeeds.
Trigger any of these fears and the HCP will often go straight for the jugular.
HCPs don’t handle rejection, disappointments, criticism or conflict like most people. Specifically, most people don’t become vindictive stalkers or snap when they’re rejected or things don’t go their way.
HCPs often generate conflict because they enjoy it. They seem to derive a buzz from the conflict, drama, chaos and vitriol they generate. Many HCPs are very litigious and enjoy the adversarial nature of the courts where they can play victim and use the law to punish their Target(s) of Blame.
This definition echoes the descriptions of Perrette’s personality in the declarations written by her friends and associates, particularly the affidavits of Lisa Lynch, Blair Barnette and Jason Fishbein (links at the bottom of article).
Personality Disorders: Not all HCPs have personality disorders (PD), but many of them do or have enough PD traits to be consistently problematic. Frequently, personality-disordered HCPs fall into the Cluster B or “dramatic” PD continuum.
Cluster B disorders include histrionic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder. At their core, I believe all Cluster B disorders stem from sociopathy (i.e., lack of empathy for others, refusal to hold themselves accountable for their behaviors and exploitation of others). Bleiberg (2001) refers to these characterological disorders as “severe” because they chronically engage in extreme conflict, drama and cause the most problems in society.
Most individuals with PDs are not “crazy” in the sense that they don’t know right from wrong and, therefore, are not responsible for their actions. Most PD individuals know right from wrong, they just don’t care when abusing others, lying, cheating, etc., gets them what they want. Again, this is fundamentally sociopathic behavior.
It is well known in the mental health community that individuals with these disorders frequently confuse their feelings for facts and are prone to confabulation (i.e., lies told by liars who believe their own lies). This is typically a significant source of conflict for themselves and anyone that gets close to them.
Target of Blame: The Target of Blame is an individual who is targeted or victimized by a HCP as the source of the conflict, when, in reality, it is the HCP who is generating the conflict. “Anyone can become a Target of Blame just by being in a close relationship or being an authority figure in the [HCP’s] life” (Eddy, 2008, p. 347).
Negative Advocates: A negative advocate (NA) can be even more impassioned about destroying the HCP’s target than the HCP herself. The NA believes the HCP’s tale of victimhood and sees himself/herself as the HCP’s savior/avenger. NAs are essentially dupes of the HCP, particularly when they engage in violence by proxy be it death threats, harassment via the courts, financial distress and/or real physical violence.
Perrette’s current boyfriend seems to have helped her to set-up Shivers at Shintaro and some of her fans have allegedly made death threats against Shivers. AVFM is currently in the process of securing digital copies of these threats.
DARVO (Deny, Attack and Reverse Victim and Offender): Predators, bullies, HCPs and abusive PDs commonly engage in DARVO. Jennifer Freyd, PhD (1997, pp. 23-24) finds that:
Actual abusers threaten, bully and make a nightmare for anyone who holds them accountable or asks them to change their abusive behavior. This attack, intended to chill and terrify, typically includes threats of lawsuits, overt and covert attacks, on the whistle-blower’s credibility and so on.
The attack will often take the form of focusing on ridiculing the person who attempts to hold the offender accountable. The attack will also likely focus on ad hominem instead of intellectual/evidential issues. Finally, I propose that the offender rapidly creates the impression that the abuser is the wronged one, while the victim or concerned observer is the offender. Figure and ground are completely reversed. The more the offender is held accountable, the more wronged the offender claims to be.
This is similar to what Eddy (2006, p. 29) describes as the persuasive blaming tactics of high-conflict individuals. “Persuasive Blamers persuade others that their internal problems are external, caused by something else or someone else. Once others are persuaded to get the problem backward, the dispute escalates into a long-term, high-conflict situation. One that few people other than persuasive blamers can tolerate.” Getting the problem backward is precisely what happens when DARVO occurs.
Figure and ground are completely reversed, which is what appears to be happening in the Perrette-Shivers case. Perrette also seems to have engaged in DARVO after stealing an ex’s cat and pre-emptively filing a restraining order when he threatened to report her to the police.
Precipitants of False Allegations
When a man makes the decision to end a relationship with a high-conflict, personality disordered and/or sociopathic woman, there is a strong potential for physical, emotional and/or legal violence by the woman. Stories abound of women killing their ex-partners and their own children during divorce and custody battles and killing ex-boyfriends, for example, the Jodi Arias case. Facebook stalking and other forms of cyber-stalking are considered normal and acceptable behavior in some female circles. However, unlike most male abusers, female abusers have another weapon in their arsenal, which can be just as lethal as any firearm or poison.
That weapon is the false allegation by which the false accuser fabricates an act of violence, manufactures evidence, claims they fear for their safety based solely on their feelings with zero or dubious corroborating evidence, distorts or exaggerates the intensity and nature of mutual arguments or falsely accuses a partner or ex of behaviors of which the accuser is actually guilty (i.e., DARVO) in an effort to cover their tracks, deflect and project their bad behavior onto the person they have harmed.
A false allegation is a form of psychological violence and violence by proxy (i.e., using law enforcement and the court system and/or being ostracized from one’s family and social circles) that can destroy careers, reputations, familial relationships and friendships and lead to real physical violence (e.g., police violence, negative advocate violence, prison assaults, character assassination, etc.)
The two most common precipitants to false allegations are:
- Ending the relationship; and
- Beginning a romantic relationship with a new partner.
This is true for both men and women in a relationship with an abusive, high-conflict and/or personality-disordered partner. The false allegation/smear campaign is a way to retaliate or punish the target because the ex feels abandoned, rejected and, possibly, inferior to their target’s new object of affection.
I have worked with several men whose wives, girlfriends and exes have offered to drop their false allegations and pending court cases if the man in question returns to the relationship. These women did not file protective orders out of fear, but out of their compulsion to continue to control and abuse their target.
Male HCPs also make false allegations and are just as malicious and disturbed as their female counterparts, but there are far more tactical advantages for women who manufacture false allegations in the court system than men. In my experience, male abusers engage in smear campaigns and stalking behaviors typically minus the false criminal allegations, while female abusers oftentimes engage in all three.
If male HCPs were able to manipulate the courts as easily as female HCPs (i.e., credibly play helpless victim to the courts rampant female-bias), it’s likely that the number of false allegations and restraining orders filed by HCP males would be nearly equal to that of HCP females. Genuine male victims are unlikely to report abuse to authorities and seek protective measures like restraining orders because they fear being ridiculed, that they won’t be believed or, even worse, that they will be wrongly arrested while their female abuser hides her smirk behind a flood of crocodile tears. Male HCPs undoubtedly know this and are unwilling to take the risk of filing false criminal charges. For female HCPs, there is very little downside to making a false allegation of abuse.
Even when female false accusers admit to lying or have their cases dismissed due to lack of evidence or discovery of evidence that disproves their claims, the most they get is a slap on the wrist and maybe some mandatory counseling, but more on this later.
Filing false allegations of domestic violence and sexual assault is an abnormal, maladaptive and costly (i.e., time and money wasted by law enforcement and clogged court systems and costly to the victims of false allegations and their loved ones) response to being dumped or having to share custody, but in CrazyLand, it is frequently a reflexive response. When a HCP or PD feels abandoned, rejected, less than or is worried their bad behaviors will be exposed, their knee jerk response oftentimes is to embark upon a scorched earth trajectory of destruction just like we seem to be witnessing in the Perrette-Shivers case.
Characteristics of False Accusers
- False accusers are much more likely to have personality disorders such as histrionic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, passive-aggressive personality disorder or paranoid personality disorder (Wakefield & Underwager, 1990). HCP traits are often synonymous with PD traits.
- False accusers appear to be highly defensive and rigid, to have poor insight and a tendency to deny personal shortcomings. They tend to be extremely concerned about and sensitive to how others perceive them. Fears of inferiority and exposure.
- False accusers tend to confuse feelings with facts. A woman may “feel” abused or may “feel” the children are being abused, when, objectively speaking, no abuse has actually occurred. Compounding this problem is that courts now allow women to press charges or file for restraining orders based solely upon their feelings, which may or may not have a basis in reality, rather than evidence of wrongdoing by the man (Zepezauer, 1994). This also seems to be occurring in the Perrette-Shivers case. Specifically, the Hon. Judge Gretchen Taylor stated:
“I see no family code section 6321 (A)(2) behavior that says that Mr. Shivers has engaged in an assault, threat of an assault or behavior that rises to the level of such severe emotional harm that he needs to be excluded from his home . . . I think there is sufficient, well-founded fear on the part of the respondent [Perrette]. And if I properly had a request from the petitioner [Shivers], I might even find well-founded fear on his part. But I don’t” [have a restraining order request from Shivers – a tactical error on his part].
- False accusers are likely to misperceive the behavior of others and to react to stressful situations in maladaptive ways. Depending upon the specific personality disorder, they are characterized by instability of mood, impulsivity, inappropriate emotional overreactions, a need for approval and attention, and difficulties handling anger and conflict (Wakefield & Underwager, 1990).
- False accusers also have an obsessive hatred of and anger toward their ex-partner, so much so that their hatred and anger become a driving force in their lives. Buell admits in her autobiography that her obsession with Shivers “will never, ever be over – never.” It now seems that Buell and Perrette have joined forces in a mutual vendetta.
Characteristics of the Falsely Accused
The falsely accused targets of blame tend to be your average nice guys with nurturing and passive personalities. These men are unlikely to be socially aggressive or competitive and tend to lack insight (i.e., don’t learn from their mistakes) into their personal relationships.
This may explain why so many of these men have a pattern of relationships with abusive, HCP/PD women. Even when the woman is known to have a history of making false allegations in her previous relationships — like Perrette seems to have — or has made threats during their marriage to call 911 and have him arrested, somehow these men just don’t see what most people could see coming from outer space until it’s too late (Wakefield & Underwager, 1990).
Because of their sensitive and caring natures, these men may also be more vulnerable to relationships with needy and manipulative women. Many of these men may also have been raised by one or more parents with HCP/PD traits and possibly groomed to tolerate these kinds of abuses. Once in a relationship with a HCP, they may behave somewhat passively as they continue to naively hope that everything will magically work out in the end or that they will finally win “mother’s” love or approval. This rarely, if ever happens.
Characteristics of False Allegation Cases
Ross and Blush (1987; 1990) have found certain patterns that characterize false allegation cases. The following patterns are not exhaustive, but rather the most applicable to the Perrette-Shivers case:
- The allegations start after separation and legal action commences.
- There’s a history of family dysfunction with high-conflict and other hidden underlying issues.
- The female accuser is often a histrionic or borderline personality.
- The female accuser takes an angry, defensive and justifying stance.
- The accused male is generally nurturing, passive and lacks “macho” characteristics.
- The female accuser presents as assertive and organized with a justifiable argument supported by “facts, figures and opinions supporting her evidence” and comes across as outraged and worried about her ex’s behavior.
- The female false accuser becomes resistant, hostile and passive-aggressive or overtly aggressive upon cross-examination of her claims, as most HCPs/PDs do, and is likely to try to discredit any evaluator or law enforcement official that questions her assertions and may threaten to sue or file an ethics complaint.
- The false accuser has intense and chaotic interpersonal relationships and is prone to intense valuation and devaluation and will attempt to punish others who they believe have abandoned or hurt them, which also appears to describe the Perrette-Shivers case.
To the Professional Victim Goes the Spoils
Over the last 25 years, as the domestic violence and divorce industries have grown, a perverse system has developed in response to female initiated false allegations of abuse in which the false accuser is rewarded.
Female false accusers get attention. The person they hate is punished. They receive social approval. We all hate abusers, right? Look at that courageous woman who’s fighting for her life! Female false accusers may also receive free legal representation, welfare payments, free counseling and other support services and support from family, friends and neighbors — in other words, even more attention (Wakefield & Underwager, 1990).
Perrette sure is getting a lot of press mileage out of this. Had it not been for her allegations against Shivers, she would have remained unknown to most non-NCIS fans. Pauley has also allegedly rallied negative advocates to her cause. In April 2011, Pauley sniffled that she might have to quit the only job that’s given her fame because of Shivers’ alleged harassment. As previously reported, Shivers alleges he subsequently began receiving death threats from Perrette’s fans. AVFM will publish these threats in an upcoming article. Does anyone believe that someone who appears to court the limelight as much as Perrette does would actually walk away from what she seems to crave most – celebrity and attention?
There are very little, if any consequences for women who make false allegations in family and criminal court (Green & Schetky, 1988). Ultimately, the female false accuser has far more to gain than she has to lose. However, I’m hopeful that we’ll soon be seeing more stories like that of Daryl Guinyard, the man who sued his ex-wife in civil court for making false sexual abuse allegations and was awarded $852,000 in punitive damages.
The problem of false allegations will continue as long as law enforcement, the courts and society continue to protect enable women like Pauly Perrette from facing the natural consequences of their behavior.
Putting the Pieces Together
Based on what is known about Perrette’s alleged psychiatric issues, apparent history of filing baseless restraining orders against exes and what we know about the 4 fears that drive HCPS, a different story from the one Perrette has been spinning comes into focus.
Fears 1 and 2: Abandonment and Inferiority. After Mr. Shivers filed for divorce, Pauley’s harassment via law enforcement and the courts began. This seems to be a narcissistic rage reaction, as in, “How dare you leave me? How dare you reject me?”
Fears 3 and 4: Exposure of Misdeeds and Loss of Resources. Barnette states in her affidavit:
In November 2004 I visited Francis Shivers at his house on Whitley Terrace. There he told me about the extramarital affair his wife “Pauley” had with a boy he would only describe as the “pizza boy.” He said she was terrified of her sex scandal being exposed and made very frightening threats about what she would do if he ever told anybody. He then showed me a script Pauley wrote and explained that Pauley threatened she would do this to him.
Based on Barnette’s affidavit, it appears Perrette continues to harass Shivers in an effort to cover her tracks regarding her fling with “the pizza boy.” As previously, noted, it seems equally likely that Perrette continues her campaign of hate against Shivers due to a tremendous amount of narcissistic rage that was undoubtedly triggered when he filed for divorce and moved on with his life, despite the fact that she is the one that blew up the marriage by allegedly shtooping the pizza delivery boy. It also seems likely that Perrette feared a public sex scandal and engaged in DARVO to cover her butt and defame Shivers in a pre-emptive counter-offensive strike.
It can be difficult to sort out who is telling the truth in these he said-she said cases, but not impossible if judges and law enforcement are able to look past their biases of man = bad/woman = victim. HCPs who engage in these behaviors typically can’t substantiate their claims or, if confronted on their inconsistencies and contradictions (i.e., lies), just make up more lies to try to substantiate their claims or feign outrage. This may help the falsely accused and his legal representatives hang the false accuser with a rope of her own making, if and when he needs to prove his version of events as opposed to her ever evolving versions of the “truth.”
HCPs/PDs/Persuasive Blamers rely on the force of their emotions to sell their lies, half-truths and distortions. Since most people are suckers for drama, especially in the form of a tearful, self-righteous woman, a falsely accused man needs concrete proof if he wants to be believed and, sometimes, concrete evidence isn’t enough.
After reading numerous Internet articles and comments on this case, I have reached the conclusion that the parties involved in this saga are all nucking futz to various degrees, no offense to Mr. Shivers and his advocates as I’m a bit of an eccentric myself. There is benign crazy and malignant crazy. Judge Taylor had this to say about Shivers at the January 31, 2005 hearing:
. . . I think there’s been very little problem in the last 6 months, very little problem, a few emails and your allegation [Pauley claimed Mr. Shivers hacked into her email because he printed out copies of emails that she sent him] without a scientific analysis that makes it totally irrefutable. The worst things that happened were on the occasion when Ms. Perrette went to the residence and brought the cops and went through the window.
Mr Shivers, I think you’re behaving rather bizarrely. I think it’s a little bit creepy to have paper bags over the windows, stuff like that. It doesn’t look pretty, right? But that’s not a crime. It’s not a crime, but it does look weird. I agree. It looks strange, but I don’t issue restraining orders against strange people.
I have examined the declarations and the other evidence AVFM has in its possession of this case and cannot comprehend why Mr. Shivers has not requested and been granted a reciprocal restraining order. I cannot comprehend how the judge presiding over his current case is unable to discern the obvious set-up that occurred. I cannot comprehend why the judge is ignoring what seems to be Perrette’s history of stalking her exes and harassing them through the courts because from what little I’ve seen of Perrette on NCIS, she’s just not that good an actress.
Shrink4Men Coaching, Counseling and Consulting Services:
Dr. Tara J. Palmatier, PsyD provides confidential, fee-for-service, consultation, coaching, and counseling services to both men and women via telephone and/or Skype chat. Her practice combines practical advice, support, reality testing, safe divorce strategies, coping strategies for dealing with abusive, high-conflict/personality disordered partners and exes and goal-oriented outcomes. Please visit the Shrink4Men Services page for professional inquiries.
Court Document Links:
Bleiberg. (2001). Treating personality disorders in children and adolescents. New York: Guilford Press.
Blush, G. L. & Ross, K. L. (1990). Investigation and case management issues and strategies. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations (2) 3.
Blush, G. L. & Ross, K. L. (1987). Sexual allegations in divorce: The SAID syndrome. Conciliation Courts Review, 25(1).
Eddy, W. (2008). It’s all your fault! 12 tips for managing people who blame others for everything. HCI Press.
Freyd, J.J. (1997) Violations of power, adaptive blindness, and betrayal trauma theory. Feminism & Psychology, 7, 22-32.
Green, A. H., & Schetky, D. H. (1988). Child Sexual Abuse. New York:Brunner/Mazel.
Wakefield, H., & Underwager, R. (1990). Personality Characteristics of Parents Making False Accusations of Sexual Abuse in Custody Disputes. Issues In Child Abuse Accusations, 2(3), 121-136.
Zepzauer, F. S. (1994). Believe her! The woman never lies myth. Institute for Psychological Therapies Jrnl., Vol. 6.